City planning

Garden City is a scalable ecocity

Arctic Garden City is an application of the generic Garden City concept by Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, Ebeneser Howard and Juhani Risku (1775, 1902, 1995, 2013). The Ledoux-Howard-Risku Garden City is ecological, economical and ethical model for next generation urban planning and construcion of new cities.


Graph: The Ledoux-Howard-Risku Garden City is scalable, dynamic and applicable in different cultures, geographical locations and interests of trades and activities.

The Ledoux-Howard-Risku Garden City offers methods and procedures for envisioning, planning, concepting, design, organising and execution.


City planning in Helsinki

Juhani Risku worked at Coolplan Consultants architects’ office during the mid-1980’s. The work included town planning under professor Matti K. Mäkinen‘s supervision. The projects varied from Helsinki city centre historical quarters in Sörnäinen (two pictures below) to the extreme centre of Helsinki (Stockmann and Wulff corner, model and aerials below).

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Pictures: Architectural competition Stockmann warehouse extension. Proposal ”Rounded corner”(big picture above), by Juhani Risku, Matti K. Mäkinen, Coolplan consultants ltd. (upper class). Aerial view of the new Stockmann (left), Alvar Aalto’s proposal, 1961 (drawing in the middle), Stockmann today by Christian Gullichsen (right).

Risku’s proposal replaced the old Wulff Corner house with two rounded shapes following both Alvar Aalto’s proposal’s rectangular morphology from year 1961 (above) and applying scale and propositions from the Academic Bookshop by Aalto (1969), and adopting rounded forms from the Swedish theater, Svenska teatern, by  G. T. Chiewitz (1860).


Citizen campus and Iron College in Karkkila Högfors, 2015

Juhani Risku and Ms. Outi Alapekkala made a plan for a small size town in the metropolitarian area of Helsinki, to Karkkila Högfors. The plan was to organise the fragmented small town to get a functional centre and fluently flowing traffic. Today Karkkila has three areas with segregated functions: the historical centre, supermarket area and industrial area. On top of these three daily activity areas Karkkila has five separate resindential areas and widely scattered settlements and rural areas.

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Three pictures. Karkkila centre can be upgraded by complementary construction, new apartments and parks. Also when combining the Iron College and the historical and present Högfors Ironworks the town can reach the quality of Fiskars and Telford (Ironbridge). PDF of three pictures.

Main problems in town structure. The main traffic goes through the Karkkila town centre to the iron factory, dispersed settlements and rural areas. Children and students have to cross the heavy trafic several times a day. Shops and services suffer from the lack of customers. The centre is split by its functions: schools, shops, supermarkets, Town hall and workpalces are far away from each other.

Karkkila has three separate commercial centres: the City Centre, Helsingintie Street and the supermarkets. All commuting happens by cars inside the area of 2-3 km. The industrial area, hardware stores and two factories are two kilometers from the centre.

Overall solution. The campus of Karkkila centre consists of Nyhkälä school, marketplace, church, parks, Ironwork College, and shops. Together they form a pedestrian centre. The idle marketplace is activated and shops get new customers. When the centre gets more inhabitants and functionalities the shops and companies get more customers.

New traffic. Karkkila neighbourhoods can be connected with pedestrian and bicycle traffic, and with electric bikes and electric cars. The small streets and roads can easily be transformed to courtyard roads and park pathways, and plant trees and bushes. The marketplace is now dimensioned by cars and parking slots. On-street parking and bicycling is a sustainable way to arrange the streets. Inside the Campus all traffic is lightweight (pedestrian, bicycles), and the courtyard roads and park pathways allow safe locomotion.

Bicycle is an ideal vehicle for distances of 2-5 km. Because Karkkila is a bit hilly, electric bikes are the best solution for locomotion.


Vision of NTNU Campus year 2022

NTNU Gløshaugen campus is going to be reformed and constructed within the next 20 years (2016-2036). All facts like the mould problems in Dragvoll, long-lasting construction is expensive and a 20 years’ construction site in the city centre of Trondheim are things to be solved quicker.

NTNU Gløshaugen campus can be realised quicker than in 2o years through disruptive ideas and arrangements. The initial plan below has been made by Juhani Risku and Outi Alapekkala at the architect’s office of In Action Trondheim.

Reasoning: Visibility globally and locally

  • Universities and cities globally need upgrade and restructuring
  • Today’s 200 000 cities need to be organised and fine-tuned to fulfill the requirements for city life
  • NTNU Campus and Trondheim can be the flagship of the arisal of the City 2.0
  • Because the campus construction is a 20 year’s effort and costs in billions of NOKs the project allows highly visionary and deeply structural and fundamental actions
  • The campus is just not a migration act to inhabit 9000 new students, but a new Trondheim centre upgrade. This means extra efforts and thinking out-of-the-box for the municipality, university and the Academia globally
  • The NTNU campus and Academic City are worth of rethinking and realising because it becomes an example of (good) use of millions of work hours and tons of brainpower
  • The university as a center for civilisation (from Stanford to NTNU) gets a Nordic and Arctic realisation
  • Student’s commitment (lecture as workstation) needs a platform at the new NTNU.


Image. Early sketches from September 2015. Juhani Risku and Outi Alapekkala(Tommaso Gecchelin, Next transportation).


Image. NTNU Academic City, the Campus, has an underground world and a space sky high. The underground world varies between 45000-80000 m², depending on the Campus concept. The underground world consists of Nansen Science Park, Trollscape and a shopping center in the city.

NTNU Campus, with sky high upper world and the deep down underground world makes the university an all-day and all-season place for science, technology and education. By the same time Trondheim city gets an non-peripheric activity center for the citizens, tourists and 30000 students.

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NTNU Academic Campus is the next generation environment of a university in a city:

  • The Campus is a functional part of the city
  • It is located in 10 minutes distance from the city center
  • The Campus is sustainable for its compact setup and nearby apartments
  • The TRD City Shuttle is agile and quick to transport people around Trondheim center and to the Campus. The Shuttle has panorama cars which can zip-connect to each other depending on the chosen route, direction and speed
  • Year 2025 he TRD City Shuttle has routes to Trondheim surroundings making commuting fluent and easy
  • The Campus with new buildings on the ground level and the underground centers offer all daily and weekly cultural and material needs which today can only be found outside Trondheim. This makes an abstraction shift for the citizens to enjoy the city without traveling in the suburbs.